Ankle and Foot Conditions

The ankle and foot are complex structures that support mobility and balance. They consist of bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons that work together to facilitate walking, running, and other daily activities.

Ankle and Foot Conditions
Ankle and Foot Conditions
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Your Guide to Understanding Ankle and Foot Conditions

What is Ankle and Foot Conditions?

The ankle and foot are essential components of the human musculoskeletal system, responsible for providing stability, support, and mobility. The ankle is a hinge joint connecting the lower leg bones (tibia and fibula) to the foot. It allows flexion and extension, enabling movements like walking, running, jumping, and pivoting. The foot is a complex structure consisting of 26 bones, multiple muscles, ligaments, tendons, and soft tissues.

The bones of the foot are divided into three main regions: the hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot. The hindfoot includes the talus and calcaneus, forming the ankle joint and providing most of the foot's weight-bearing function. The midfoot consists of five tarsal bones, which act as shock absorbers and help maintain the foot's arches. The forefoot comprises the metatarsals and phalanges, forming the toes. These bones provide balance and propulsion during walking and running.

The ankle and foot work together in a complex biomechanical interplay to facilitate seamless movement. Muscles and tendons surrounding the ankle and foot play a crucial role in maintaining stability and initiating movements. The calf muscles, including the gastrocnemius and soleus, control ankle plantarflexion (pointing the foot downward), while muscles on the front of the lower leg, such as the tibialis anterior, control dorsiflexion (lifting the foot upward).

Ligaments and tendons provide additional support and stability to the ankle and foot. Ligaments are strong fibrous connective tissues that connect bones to bones, while tendons connect muscles to bones. The ligaments around the ankle, such as the lateral ligaments (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, and posterior talofibular ligaments), help prevent excessive inversion (rolling inward) and eversion (rolling outward) movements, protecting against ankle sprains and other injuries.

Proper care and treatment of the ankle and foot are crucial for maintaining overall physical well-being. Physiotherapy, chiropractic, and naturopathy professionals specializing in musculoskeletal health can provide valuable guidance and interventions to address ankle and foot-related issues, including pain, injuries, and rehabilitation. They may employ various techniques such as manual therapy, exercises, stretching, orthotics, and natural remedies to help improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance overall function.

How can Chiropractic help treat Ankle and Foot Conditions?

Chiropractic services offer a unique approach to alleviate ankle and foot issues by focusing on the function of the musculoskeletal system. Chiropractors understand that  imbalances in the spine can affect the entire body, including the ankles and feet.

By performing adjustments and manipulations, chiropractors can restore proper motion in the joints and improve overall biomechanics. They may also utilize techniques such as soft tissue therapy, exercises, and stretches to reduce inflammation, increase mobility, and strengthen the surrounding muscles. By addressing the root cause of ankle and foot problems, chiropractic care can provide effective relief and support long-term healing.

What causes Ankle and Foot Conditions?

Ankle and foot issues can be caused by various factors, including injuries, overuse, and medical conditions. Here are some common causes:


Ankle and foot injuries often occur during physical activities, sports, or accidents. Sprains, strains, fractures, and dislocations can result from twisting or rolling the ankle, direct impact, or repetitive stress. These injuries can damage ligaments, tendons, bones, or other structures, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.


Overuse or repetitive strain on the ankle and foot can cause discomfort and potential injury. Engaging in activities that involve repetitive movements, such as running, jumping, or dancing, without proper rest and recovery can lead to conditions like Achilles tendonitis, plantar fasciitis, or stress fractures.

Medical Conditions

Certain medical conditions can contribute to ankle and foot problems. Arthritis, both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, can affect the joints and cause pain, inflammation, and stiffness. Conditions like gout, diabetes, and neuropathy can also impact the health of the ankle and foot, leading to complications and discomfort.

Improper Footwear

Wearing poorly fitting shoes or footwear that lacks proper support can put stress on the feet and ankles. High heels, tight shoes, or shoes without adequate cushioning or arch support can contribute to foot and ankle pain, bunions, and other issues.

What treatments might help Ankle and Foot Conditions?

Treatment for ankle and foot conditions aims to improve symptoms, restore function, and promote healing. Here are some common ways in which treatment can help improve ankle and foot issues:

Pain Management Treatment

Often includes measures to alleviate pain, such as over-the-counter pain medications or prescribed pain relievers. Additionally, healthcare professionals may recommend the use of ice packs, heat therapy, or topical ointments to help manage pain and reduce inflammation.

Rest and Immobilization

For certain ankle and foot conditions, rest and immobilization are essential components of treatment. This may involve using crutches, wearing a brace or cast, or using supportive devices like walking boots to limit movement and allow the affected area to heal properly.

Physical Therapy

Physical therapy plays a crucial role in the rehabilitation of ankle and foot issues. A physical therapist will design a customized exercise program to strengthen the muscles around the ankle and foot, improve flexibility, and enhance stability. They may also utilize techniques like manual therapy, stretching, and ultrasound to aid in recovery.

Assistive Devices

In some cases, assistive devices can aid in improving ankle and foot conditions. Orthotic inserts, arch supports, or custom-made footwear can provide support, correct alignment, and alleviate discomfort. These devices help distribute weight evenly and reduce stress on the affected area.

Rehabilitation Exercises

Following an ankle or foot injury or surgery, rehabilitation exercises are vital for recovery. These exercises focus on restoring range of motion, strengthening muscles, improving balance, and regaining functional abilities. The exercises are typically tailored to the specific condition and individual needs.

Lifestyle Modifications

Healthcare professionals may recommend lifestyle modifications to prevent further injury or manage chronic ankle and foot conditions. This may include weight management, footwear adjustments, activity modifications, and implementing proper warm-up and cool-down routines before physical activities.

Surgical Intervention

In severe cases or when conservative treatments fail, surgical intervention may be necessary. Surgery aims to repair damaged structures, remove loose fragments, correct deformities, or stabilize the ankle or foot joint. The type and extent of surgery will depend on the specific condition.

Signs of Ankle and Foot Conditions:

Ankle and foot issues can present with various signs and symptoms. Here are some common indicators that you may be experiencing problems with your ankle or foot:


Pain is one of the primary signs of ankle and foot issues. You may experience localized pain in the ankle joint, foot arch, heel, or specific areas of the foot. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be constant or occur during certain activities.


Swelling, also known as edema, is another common sign. It usually occurs due to inflammation or fluid buildup in the affected area. Swelling can make the ankle or foot appear puffy, and you may notice increased tightness or discomfort in the area.

Reduced Range of Motion

Ankle and foot problems can lead to a decreased ability to move the joint freely. You may experience stiffness, difficulty flexing or extending the foot, or a limited range of motion when walking or performing other activities.


If you feel unsteady or have a sensation of your ankle giving way, it could indicate ankle instability. This can be caused by ligament damage, muscle weakness, or improper alignment of the joint. Instability can increase the risk of falls and injuries.

Difficulty Bearing Weight

An ankle or foot condition may make it challenging to put weight on the affected limb. You may experience pain or discomfort when standing, walking, or participating in activities that involve weight-bearing.

Changes in Appearance

Look out for any visible changes in the ankle or foot. This could include redness, bruising, deformities, such as swelling bumps or misalignment, or changes in the shape or structure of the joint.

Symptoms of Ankle and Foot Conditions:

Ankle and foot issues can manifest with various symptoms. Here are some common symptoms that may indicate problems with the ankle or foot:


Pain is a prevalent symptom of ankle and foot conditions. You may experience pain in the ankle joint, foot arch, heel, or specific areas of the foot. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be sharp, throbbing, or achy.


Swelling, also known as edema, is a typical symptom of ankle and foot problems. It occurs due to inflammation or fluid buildup in the affected area. Swelling can make the ankle or foot appear swollen, puffy, or enlarged.


Ankle and foot issues can lead to stiffness, making it difficult to move the joint freely. You may experience a sensation of tightness or reduced flexibility in the ankle or foot, making it challenging to perform certain movements.

Limited Range of Motion

If you have an ankle or foot condition, you may notice a decreased ability to move the joint through its full range of motion. This can result in difficulty flexing or extending the foot properly, affecting activities like walking, running, or jumping.


Ankle instability is characterized by a feeling of unsteadiness or a tendency for the ankle to give way. This can occur due to weakened ligaments, muscle imbalances, or previous injuries. Instability may increase the risk of falls or recurrent sprains.

Difficulty Bearing Weight

Ankle or foot issues can make it challenging to bear weight on the affected limb. You may experience pain, discomfort, or pressure when standing, walking, or putting pressure on the ankle or foot.

Changes in Skin Color or Temperature

In some cases, ankle and foot conditions may cause changes in skin color, such as redness or bluish discoloration. Additionally, you may notice changes in skin temperature, with the affected area feeling warmer or cooler than usual.

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When is the right time to see a Chiropractor for Ankle and Foot Conditions?

The right time to see a chiropractor for ankle and foot conditions is when you are experiencing persistent pain, discomfort, or difficulty with mobility that is affecting your daily activities. Here are some indicators that it may be time to seek professional help:

Pain and Limited Mobility

If you are experiencing ongoing pain in your ankle or foot that does not improve with rest or self-care measures, it may be a sign that there is an underlying issue that requires attention. Additionally, if the pain is accompanied by stiffness, swelling, or difficulty moving the joint, it is advisable to seek professional evaluation.

Inability to Perform Activities

If your ankle or foot condition is hindering your ability to perform regular activities such as walking, running, or participating in sports, it is a good idea to seek expert advice. A chiropractor can help assess the cause of your limitations and provide appropriate treatment to improve function and alleviate discomfort.

Recurring or Worsening Symptoms

If you have experienced ankle or foot issues in the past that have resolved but are now resurfacing or getting worse over time, it may indicate a chronic or progressive condition. Seeking professional guidance can help identify the root cause and prevent further complications.

Prevention and Injury Management

Even if you do not currently have any ankle or foot problems, seeing a chiropractor can be beneficial for preventive care. They can assess your biomechanics, provide recommendations for proper footwear, offer exercises to strengthen and stabilize the ankle and foot, and guide you on injury prevention techniques.

Meet our Lead Chiropractor

Dr. Brett Herlehy

Dr. Brett Herlehy


Doctor of Chiropractic from New York Chiropractic College

Dr. Brett enjoys working with active individuals looking to reach the next level and also anyone who is trying to incorporate more physical activity into their daily lives.

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Physiotherapist Brittany Pereira working with client at Anchor Health and Performance Clinic Mississauga
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